Early Rome and the Roman Republic

Outline Map of Early Rome and Italy                                                                       Name
Morris—World History 9—2012   (15 points)                                                        Period

Directions:  Using the textbook, and the maps found in the back on pages A10-A11 and A12-A13, complete the map below by doing the following.  You will need colored pencils.
1.        Label the following water bodies and color them BLUE:   Po River, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea.

2.       Draw on and label the Alps Mountains and the Apennines Mountains.
3.       Label the two important volcanoes, Mt Vesuvius and Mt. Etna.
4.       Label Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia
5.       Put on the towns of Rome, Florence, Venice, Turin, Milan, and Naples in Italy and the town of Palermo in Sicily.
6.       Color the low areas green, as shown on the map page A12, and color the high mountain areas brown, as shown on the map A12.
7.       Draw on the island of Corsica and Malta, label them and color them yellow.

Tuesday, November 13

A Trip To Rome and Italy

Main Idea:   Rome began as a small tribe of people on the Tiber River in Italy, but because of its location and the influences of those who settled there, Rome became a great empire.
  • Italy--a boot-shaped nation in southern Europe on the Mediterranean Sea
  • Mediterranean Sea--main sea between Europe and Africa
  • Rome--city halfway up the boot, 7 miles up the Tiber River
  • Tiber River--river that flows through Rome
  • Sicily--the island below Italy that it appears the boot is kicking
  • Alps--mountain range over the top of Italy
  • Apennines--mountain range that runs down the spine of Italy
  • Italy is halfway from one end of the Med .Sea to the other, and Rome is halfway up the boot of Italy.  Strategically placed for conquest.
  • Climate--same as Greece
  • Main products---same as Greece
  • Rome grew on seven hills for protection, next to the Tiber River
  • Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the Roman god Mars and a Roman princess.  The twins were cast into the Tiber after birth and raised by a she-wolf until adopted by a shepherd.  They fought over where to build Rome and who would rule.  Romulus killed Remus and founded Rome.
Video to Watch for Romulus and RemusRomulus and Remus Story

Wednesday, November 14

Who Were the Romans?

Main Idea:  Three different cultures combined to create Roman culture--Latin, Etruscan and Greek.

1.  Latins---came over the Alps about 1,000 BC
                Contribution---Latin Language--this language became the language of the Roman Empire, the
                                     language of learning in the Middle Ages, and formed the basis for the Romance   
                                     languages of Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romansch.  It also gave  
                                     English about 1/3 of all of its words.
               Latin Language Video Clip (Very good)---History of the Latin Language

2.  Etruscans---lived in Northern Italy
                    The Etruscan Alphabet became our alphabet.
                    The arch

                    Metal Working and Art
                    Etruscan Video Clip: 
The Etruscans

3.  Greeks---750-600 BC--
        Contributions:   Art, Philosophy, Religion, Agriculture
        Greek Video Clip:  
Greek Contributions to Rome


Begin Second Trimester

Tuesday, December 4

                                         The Roman Republic

Main Idea:  The Romans got rid of kings and put power in the hands of the people.

  • Republic--a form of government in which power rests with the citizens who elect their leaders
  • Rome was not a true republic.  Some Romans could not vote, such as women and slaves.
  • Roman Classes
    • Patricians---old-school nobles, like the lords in England, who owned land and whose wealth extended back generations.
    • Plebeians--middle class, including workers, farmers, and craftsmen
  • Both patricians and plebeians were citizens.  Women and slaves were not represented.
  • Plebeians get rights when the patricians need their help to overthrow the tyrant, King Tarquin. 
  • Plebeians demand that the Patricians post the laws of Rome in the Forum (meeting place) so that everyone can read them and see that the patricians are not taking advantage of the plebs.
  • The Plebeians get more rights when the Patricians agree to let the Plebeians have representatives in the Patrician Senate.  These representatives, called Tribunes, are Patricians but represent the interests of the Plebs.
  • Roman Government Graphic Organizer:
    •    The two consuls were elected for terms of only one year, and could not serve again for ten years.  This kept either from getting too much power or support.  Also each consuls could VETO any idea of the other, preventing either from getting too much power.
    • In cases of extreme emergency, when something had to be dealt with quickly, the Senate could appoint a DICTATOR to serve with complete control for 6 months only.
    • The danger of this was that if a dictator was able to get enough support, he could refuse to step down. That is what Julius Caesar will do eventually.
  • Video Clip Links for this Lesson:
Thursday, December 6

                               The Roman Army

Main Idea:  The Roman Army became a highly-trained, well-equipped force that conquered, built, and civilized new areas as Rome grew.

  • Legion--- 5,000 men, both infantry and cavalry (the operating size of a Roman army)
  • Cohort---600 men, part of a legion.  
  • Century---100 men (80 soldiers plus 20 support), part of a cohort
  • Centurion--a highly-trained, highly paid commander of a century who had the authority to make snap decisions on the battlefield.  This gave the Romans a huge advantage in battle.
Excellent videos you should watch if you were gone:
 Clothing, Equipment, Weapons and Armor of a Roman Legionary
The Roman Military Machine

Friday, December7

                                        Pearl Harbor

Who:  Japanese planes from six aircraft carriers attack U.S. Navy fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
When:  December 7, 1941, Sunday morning
Where:  Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in Honolulu
Why:  To destroy the U.S. Pacific fleet so Japan would have time to capture territory in the Pacific for resources
  1. Japan sneaked halfway across the Pacific to within 250 miles of Pearl Harbor
  2. Launched 350 planes
  3. The attack sank or damaged ships and planes
  4. The attack failed to sink aircraft carriers, and also failed to destroy fuel storage tanks and dry-docks.
  5. It killed nearly 3,000 Navy and Marine personnel, and also Army and 57 civilians
  6. Biggest loss was on the U.S.S. Arizona, which lost 1,177 men, many of whom are still entombed on the ship.
  7. U.S. declared war on Japan on December 8, 1941
  8. President was Franklin D. Roosevelt
  9. War lasted from December 8 until the summer of 1945

Monday, December 10

                                        Rome Grows!

Main Idea:  Rome treated places it conquered fairly and was soon a major trading power.  This would lead to a war with a trade power--Carthage.

  • Types of Roman Subjects
    • Latins--original Romans---from central Italy--were citizens AND can vote
    • Conquered areas in Rome---were citizens but could NOT vote
    • Areas outside Italy that were conquered by Rome---were allies but not citizens, could be rewarded with citizenship.
    • Slaves--up to 1/3 of all Rome's population by the year Zero
  • Benefits of being a Roman subject
    • Roads
    • Protection
    • Trade
    • Culture--Theaters, Colisseums, etc.
    • Water--Baths and Aqueducts
Tuesday, December 11


                         The Punic Wars  (264-146 B.C.)

Main Idea:  Rome fought a trade war with the North African city-state of Carthage.

1.  First Punic War---264-241 BC
  • lasts 23 years
  • Rome reverse engineers a Carthaginian ship and builds a navy
  • Rome wins Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and control of the Mediterannean Sea
2.  Second Punic War----218 BC- 201 BC
  • Hannibal, great Carthaginian general, attacks Rome by way of Spain, France and the Alps with 40,000 men and 37 war elephants.
  • Fought in Italy for many years.  Outwitted politically-appointed Roman generals.  At one battle, Cannae, he kills 50,000 Roman legionaries despite being outnumbers
  • Finally, Roman general Scipio attacks Carthage, forcing Hannibal to return to defend it
  • Scipio defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama
3.  Third Punic War--149-146 BC
  • War of revenge--Carthage must be destroyed--Cato
  • Carthage destroyed, residents killed or enslaved, farmland salted
Wednesday, December 12

Finish Punic Wars
Do Map of Rome's Expansion During Punic Wars  (Due Friday and shown below)

Monday, December 17

                                   Rome, We Have a Problem!

Main Idea:  As Rome became rich and powerful after the Punic Wars, the Republic began to have problems with its government and its people.

I.   Problems
  • Widening gap between rich and poor
    • Latifundia---large plantations owned by wealthy patricians that used many slaves, much like the plantations in the American South before the Civil War.  These latifundia put the smaller farmers out of business.
    • Soldiers--lose their farms while they are away fighting in Punic Wars.
    • Poor farmers and soldiers move to cities, where they live in slums, are usually unemployed, and learn to hate and distrust the government
  • Military
    • The military was set up so that a successful general who shared the spoils of war with his men got their loyalty rather than the government.  The men would follow the general before they would obey a government that they thought was corrupt and didn't care about them.
  • Corruption
    • Patricians in Senate do nothing to help the plebeians and the poor, and instead focus on getting more wealth and power.
  • Slavery---1/3 of all Rome's population is now slave.  These slaves take a lot of the labor from Roman citizens and non-slaves
II.  Solutions
  1. Gracchus Brothers---Tribunes who try to get reforms passed to help the Plebeians, but they are assasinated.
  2. Civil War---Battle of rival generals.  Sulla wins and declares himself dictator.
Tuesday, December 18

                             Julius Caesar:  Rise to Power

Main Idea:  Julius Caesar became a dictator but did great things for Rome.
  • Born 100 BC. Died 44 BC.
  • Month of his birth, Quinctillus, was changed to July in his honor.
  • Legend says he was born by Caesarian section, thus the name of the operation.
  • Born to a poor patrician family.
  • Raised in the poorer section of Rome, friends with slaves and plebeians growing up.  Could speak with them and relate to the middle class and poor unlike most patricians.
  • Ambitious--hero was Alexander the Great
  • Grew up in a time of civil war in Rome.  To him, the Republic did not work very well.
  • Had to flee Rome when Sulla became dictator.
  • Became a military hero and diplomat in Asia Minor.
  • Later conquers Gaul
  • 55 BC Conquers England
  • 50 BC  Senate orders him back to Rome, thinking he has become too powerful.  If he goes, he knows he will be imprisoned or killed.  He decides to risk it all and take his army.
  • 49 BC  Crosses the Rubicon River.  If a general crossed the Rubicon with his army, he was entering Roman territory and was guilty of treason.  From that point, there was no turning back.  He would either become dictator or die.
  • "Crossing the Rubicon"--an expression meaning passing the point of no return in one's life.
  • Pompey flees, JC defeats rivals
  • 44 BC  Name dictator for life by the Senate,which he has stacked with his own supporters
Wednesday, December 19

                                    Roman Daily Life

  1. Men and Women
    • Paterfamilias---the Roman father had complete and God-like power over his family.  He could sell his children into slavery or kill them.  He could also tell them who to marry and how to live their lives and they had to obey.
    • Gravitas--the Roman ideal behavior--discipline, strength, loyalty
    • Women--highter status than in Greece, but could not vote
  2. Children and Education
    • Boys were favored because only they could be politically and economically successful
    • Girls are not even given their own name.  Instead, are named after their father, such as Julius' daughter would be called Julia.  If there was more than one daughter, each would be called Julia the Elder, Julia the Second, Julia the Younger etc.
    • Only patrician boys are educated, to age 16, when they are adults
    • Girls marry at 12-15, their father picks their husband, and the husband is usually an older, successful businessman or comes from a politically powerful family.  It's not about love, it's about making an alliance with a powerful family.
  3. Slaves
    • varied in treatment.   A valuable Greek tutor-slave might live with the family and be treated as such, while a worker in the salt mines would be treated like an animal.
    • Gladiators---trained warriors, like professional athletes but slaves.  Fought to the death in the arena.  Some lived 10-20 years and attained rock star status.
Thursday, December 20

                               Julius Caesar, Part Two

Main Idea:   Julius Caesar did many good things for the common people, but he did them to further his own interests and to increase his power.  He was killed by Senators who feared his dictatorial rule.

Julius Caesar's Accomplishments
  1. Expanded the  Senate  (and packed it with his own supporters)
  2. Gave people living in the provinces outside Italy citizenship  (to increase his number of supporters)
  3. Helped the poor by creating jobs  (got their support, and also reduced the chance of social problems such as riots, crime, and hatred of the government)
  4. Started new colonies and gave the land to the poor  (got their support, but he took the land from those he conquered so he wasn't giving away anything that he hadn't first taken from someone else)
  5. Increased pay for soldiers   (always good to have the army on your side)
Death of Julius Caesar
  • 44 BC--Fortune-teller warns Caesar to "Beware the Ides of March"  (March 15)
  • Members of the Roman Senate plot to kill Caesar
  • March 15, 44 BC.  Caesar goes to the Senate and is killed by Roman Senators
  • The Senators expect to be heroes, but the majority of the Roman people love Caesar and they becomc enemies of Rome
  • After a power struggle, Caesar's adopted nephew Octavian becomes his successor.
Monday, January 7

Daily Life in Ancient Rome
Main Idea:  Although all Romans had basic services like water and housing, the patrician class lived much better than the middle class and the poor.

  • Clothing
    1. Patricians---Togas for special occasions, otherwise tunics or dresses of fine cloth
    2. Plebeians--cotton or wool tunics, depending on season
    3. Children--good luck charm worn around neck called a bulla 
  • Makeup and Jewelry
    • Patrician women wore lots of makeup, some of which contained toxic chemicals.  They also had elaborate hairdos and often wore wigs. 
  • Roman Homes
    • Latifundia--large patrician plantation home
    • Villa--a patrician home in town, built in the shape of the number 8, with impluvium, inner garden, and surrounding rooms
    • Insulae--apartment dwelling for plebeians and poor.  Four or five stories, bottom story had shops.  Loud, crowded, no privacy.
  • Food
    • Patricians had wide diet of most of the foods we eat today, including meat and fruit
    • Plebeians ate mostly bread and olive oil, with some supplemented food when possible.
  • Baths
    • Free Romans had access to public baths, which were more like athletic/fitness centers.
    • Most went every 9 days
    • Baths had different parts for men and women
    • Baths had a hot bath, warm bath and cold bath, heated by a fire under the floor
  • Water
    • Every block had a water fountain where all city-dwellers got water for their homes and apartments
    • Every block had a communal bathroom as well.
  • Entertainment
    • Theater--plays
    • Circus Maximus--chariot races, betting.  One in Rome seated 250,000 spectators.
    • Arena--gladiator contests/battles.  Roman Col. seated 60,000 spectators.

Tuesday, January 8

Skeleton Notes on Roman Life

I.  Baths   (Watch the hyperlink and list four facts about Roman baths)  Roman Baths Hyperlink

II.  Gladiator Training  (Watch the first hyperlink on Gladiator Training and then, if you want and have time, watch the second video about the Life of a Gladiator.  It is 50 minutes long) 
       Gladiator Training
       The True Story of the Life of a Roman Gladiator

III.  Virtual Tour inside a Roman Villa
        Roman Villa Virtual Tour

IV.   Chariot Race from Ben Hur
        Chariot Race from Ben Hur

Wednesday, January 9

We had a guest speaker, Vice Principal Matt Hancock, speak about preparing for the rest of high school, using the CIS (Career Information Service--www.idahocis.org) to plan for college or career choices.

Thursday, January 10

                           The End of the Republic

Main Idea:  After the assasination of Julius Caesar by members of the Senate, there was a Civil War in Rome that ended with the dictatorship of Caesar's adopted son and heir, his nephew Octavian, who would later be better known as Caesar Augustus.

  • Octavian---Julius Caesar's heir who became emporer after the civil war.
  • Heir--someone who is chosen to take the place of a parent or leader, usually by that person
  • Marc Anthony--famous Roman general who fought in the Civil War against Octavian from his stronghold in Egypt.
  • Cleopatra--the pharoah of Egypt, allied with Marc Anthony
  • Antony and Cleopatra kill themselves when Octavian is about to capture them in 30 BC.
  • Octavian becomes First Man in Rome in 23 BC.
REVIEW SHEET for TEST on Roman Republic
Test will be on Tuesday.

Review Sheet:  Late Roman Republic, Caesar and Octavian

  1. Map:  Be able to locate and label: Italy, Alps, Apennine Mountains, Carthage, Mediterranean Sea, Greece, Aegean Sea, Crete, Gaul (France), Alexandria (Egypt), Spain, Sicily.

  1. How did the Romans keep from having a tyranny?  What type of government did they set up?
  2. What was the ruling noble class called?  What was the middle class called?
  3. The ___________ were laws posted in the Roman Forum.
  4. About _______ of the population of Rome was made up of slaves.
  5. How many consuls were there?  How could they check each other’s power?  How many legislative bodies were there?  What were they called?
  6. The Patrician legislative body was called the ______________.  The plebeian legislative body was called the ___________.  The plebeians also had ten _________ to represent them in the Patrician body.
  7. Roman power was divided among three branches of government, the __________________, the __________________ and the ________________.  We have a President, and Rome had ___________.  We have a Senate and a House of Representatives, Rome had a _____________ and _______________.  We have a Supreme Court and Rome had a ____________.  We have the Constitution/Bill of Rights and Rome had the ___________________.
  8. What is an aqueduct and what is its purpose?
  9. What was a latifundia?  Why did the creation of latifundias cause small farmers to lose their jobs?  Where did many of the farmers move when they lost their farms?  Why was this a problem?
  10. Why did many soldiers lose their land during the Punic Wars?  Where did they go?
  11. Why did common Romans feel no patriotism towards the Republic and towards the Roman Senate?
  12. Who were the Graccus brothers and why are they important?
  13. Who was Cicero and why did he oppose Caesar?
  14. Why was Julius Caesar comfortable getting the love and support of the common people?
  15. How did Julius Caesar make a name for himself?
  16. Why did Julius Caesar go to Egypt during the dispute between King Ptolemy and his older sister Cleopatra?
  17. Why did Cleopatra want to ally herself with Caesar?
  18. How did Cleopatra’s journey up the Nile with Julius Caesar help convince Caesar to become a dictator?  How was this the same as Alexander the Great’s trip to Egypt?
  19. How did Julius Caesar take over to become dictator?
  20. What was the Rubicon?  Why was crossing it a decision from which there was no turning back?
  21. Once in power, how did Caesar get most Roman people to support him?  Give five ways.
  22. Who in Rome continued to hate Caesar and why?
  23. What happened to Julius Caesar?
  24. What is the Ides of March?  When is it?
  25. Who killed Julius Caesar and why?
  26. After the death of Caesar, were his killers successful in their goals?
  27. What relation was Octavian to Julius Caesar?  What is an heir and why was Octavian chosen as Julius Caesar’s heir?
  28. Why did many of Octavian’s enemies underestimate him?
  29. What qualities allowed Octavian to defeat his enemies?
  30. Who was Marc Antony?  Where did he go in order to regroup and fight against Octavian?
  31. What happened to Antony and Cleopatra and why?
II.  Roman Daily Life

33.  Know the functions of various public buildings such as:
a.       The Forum
b.      The Circus
c.       The Theater
d.      The Arena
e.       The Bath
34.  Describe a Roman villa.  How was it laid out?  Know various parts such as the impluvium and the garden, and about how the rooms were laid out and why there were few exterior windows.
35.  Describe what it was like to live in a Roman insulae or apartment building.
36.  Where did Romans living in insulae get their water for drinking.
37.  Describe how a Roman bath was built and heated, how many main pools there were, and how often people went.
38.  Describe the life and training of a gladiator and how gladiators were matched in the arena.
39.  What was paterfamilias?
40.  Describe the three elements of gravitas, the ideal Roman behavior.
41.  What was life like for a patrician Roman boy?  Roman girl?
42.  Why were many Roman generals more powerful than the men in the Roman Senate?

A Very Funny--and True--Monty Python Clip about the Contributions of the Romans to the Colonies. 

 Monty Python "What have the Romans ever done for us?"


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